Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)


Clinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria on Alexander disease

Tomokatsu Yoshida, M.D., Ph.D.1)

1) Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine

Alexander disease (ALXDRD) is a primary astrocyte disease caused by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene mutation. ALXDRD had been clinically regarded as a cerebral white matter disease that affects only children for about 50 years since the initial report in 1949; however, in the early part of the 21st century, case reports of adult-onset ALXDRD with medulla and spinal cord lesions increased. Basic research on therapies to reduce abnormal GFAP accumulation, such as drug-repositioning and antisense oligonucleotide suppression, has recently been published. The accumulation of clinical data to advance understanding of natural history is essential for clinical trials expected in the future. In this review, I classified ALXDRD into two subtypes: early-onset and late-onset, and detail the clinical symptoms, imaging findings, and genetic characteristics as well as the epidemiology and historical changes in the clinical classification described in the literature. The diagnostic criteria based on Japanese ALXDRD patients that are useful in daily clinical practice are also mentioned.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (1530K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 60: 581|588, 2020)
key words: Alexander disease, GFAP, clinical classification, MRI, diagnostic criteria

(Received: 4-Mar-20)