Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Original Article

A case-series study on clinical presentation, neuroradiological characteristics, and outcome of 56 consecutive patients suspected of having spontaneous intracranial hypotension

Motomi Arai, M.D., Ph.D.1)

1)Department of Neurology, Seirei Mikatahara General Hospital

The author reviewed the clinical records and neuroradiologic examinations of 86 consecutive patients with orthostatic headache who visited our clinic between April 1995 and December 2014. Fifty-six patients were suspected to have spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). The baseline characteristics of these patients were essentially similar to those reported in other published case series of SIH: female preponderance, mean age of approximately 40 years, and frequent association with nausea, hearing disturbances, or vertigo. In 43 patients who underwent gadolinium-enhanced MRI, 15 had partial dural enhancement and 15 had diffuse enhancement. Of 13 patients who underwent radionuclide cisternography, a direct finding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage was demonstrated in six patients. Ordinal scales were formulated for regression of the extent of dural enhancement on cranial MRI (none: 0, partial: 1, diffuse: 2) and severity of orthostatic headache (not so severe: 1, severe: 2). Ordinal logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the extent of dural enhancement was negatively associated with the severity of orthostatic headache. A possible explanation was that patients suspected of having SIH who showed severe orthostatic headache may lack the ability to compensate for CSF loss. Epidural blood patch (EBP) is targeted at the CSF leak site or at the lumbar level when the site of CSF leak has not been determined. The interval from EBP to disappearance of orthostatic headache did not significantly differ in six patients treated with targeted EBP and five patients with lumbar EBP. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the duration of orthostatic headache was associated with the interval from onset of headache to initial visit to our clinic, with the slope of the regression line 1.243 and intercept 14.8 days. Thus, early diagnosis of SIH appeared to correlate with earlier disappearance of orthostatic headache. No other factors were found to predict the outcome of SIH.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (393K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 55: 623|629, 2015)
key words: orthostatic headache, spontaneous intracranial hypotension, MRI, outcome

(Received: 5-Feb-15)