Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Case Report

Subacute cognitive impairment and urinary retention due to primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: a case report

Naosuke Yokoyama, M.D.1), Takamichi Kanbayashi, M.D., Ph.D.1), Shunsuke Kobayashi, M.D., Ph.D.1), Tsuyoshi Ishida, M.D., Ph.D.2) and Masahiro Sonoo, M.D., Ph.D.1)

1) Department of Neurology, Teikyo University School of Medicine
2) Department of Pathology, Teikyo University School of Medicine

We report a 66-year-old man with primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD). He had received a living-donor kidney transplantation at the age of 64 years. Although he had a good postoperative course by continuing to take oral immunosuppressive agents, he was admitted to our hospital for subacute cognitive impairment and urinary retention two years after the transplantation. Brain MRI revealed high-intensity lesions on FLAIR and T2-weighted images in the left parietal operculum, deep white matter around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. A part of these lesions showed ring enhancement. The cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevation of protein level, and mild hypoglycorrhachia. Blood tests showed no abnormalities except for positive serum VCA-IgG antibody of Epstein-Barr virus. A brain biopsy was performed and diagnosis of PCNS-PTLD was made. There was no evidence of systemic PTLD. We reduced the dose of immunosuppressive agents and started the initial treatment with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The patient showed a partial response to the treatment and transferred to another hospital for subsequent chemotherapy. PTLD is an important post-transplant complication that can affect the patient's prognosis. The incidence of PTLD is increasing with the growing numbers of transplantations and older age of donors and recipients. Although CNS involvement is known to be rare, PCNS-PTLD is an important differential diagnosis when symptoms of CNS origin develop in post-transplant patients.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (3038K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 61: 750−755, 2021)
key words: post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, central nervous system, brain biopsy, cognitive impairment, urinary retention

(Received: 31-Mar-21)