Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Case Report

A case of cholesterol embolization syndrome with cognitive impairment and pulmonary hemorrhage

Masayuki Moriya, M.D., Ph.D.1)2), Ichiro Naba, M.D., Ph.D.1), Misa Nakano, M.D., Ph.D.1), Chikao Tatsumi, M.D., Ph.D.1), Kimiko Inoue, M.D., Ph.D.3) and Harutoshi Fujimura, M.D., Ph.D.3)

1)Department of Neurology, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital
2)Department of Rehabilitation, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital
3)Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Toneyama National Hospital

A seventy-year-old man developed color change in his left toes and was treated for frostbite. Eight months later, he developed cognitive impairment and was admitted to our hospital. A remarkable increase of eosinophils was observed in peripheral blood. Brain MRI revealed abnormal lesions in the fornix, corpus callosum, basal ganglia and frontal lobe. Steroid therapy ameliorated his symptom temporarily, but he suddenly developed cardiopulmonary arrest. His autopsy revealed severe pulmonary hemorrhage with alveolar vasculitis and cholesterol crystals in the brain, kidneys, liver, and the other organs. It was possible that cholesterol embolization to multiple organs including the brain induced systemic vasculitis that caused pulmonary hemorrhage and his critical prognosis. Cholesterol embolization should be considered when we see a patient with brain lesions accompanied with eosinophilia.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (779K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 55: 823|827, 2015)
key words: cholesterol embolism, cognitive impairment, pulmonary hemorrhage, vasculitis, eosinophilia

(Received: 17-Feb-15)