Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Symposium 3

Brain protection against cerebral ischemia

Kazuo Kitagawa, M.D., Ph.D.1)

1)Department of Neurology, Osaka Univeristy Graduate School of Medicine

Previous clinical trials failed to show the benefit of several potentially protective drugs in acute ischemic stroke. However, there would be three main approaches for brain protection against stroke. The first is to develop a novel thrombolytic agent which is more efficient and safer than alteplase. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are in progress as a new thrombolytic drug. The second strategy is to augment collateral circulation through leptomeningeal anastomosis. Administration of G-CSF could enhance arteriogenesis, but it takes several days to develop functional collateral. For this purpose, partial aortic balloon clumping or stimulation of pterygopalatine ganglion may be promising. The third one is to protect neurovascular unit against reperfusion injury. Brain hypothermia is the most effective strategy in experimental ischemia, and the clinical trial for hypothermia combined with thrombolysis therapy is in progress. Activation of endogenous protective response, as presented by ischemic tolerance, has focused on remote ischemic conditioning. Although the precise mechanisms of remote preconditioning remain unclear, intermittent limb ischemia is a safe approach. Remote ischemic conditioning is now investigated in acute patients with thrombolysis therapy.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (769K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 53: 1169|1171, 2013)
key words: tissue plasminogen activator, arteriogenesis, hypothermia, glutamate receptor, remote ischemic conditioning

(Received: 31-May-13)