Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Symposium 2

Contribution of brain function analysis to the evolution of neurorehabilitation

Ichiro Miyai1), Masahito Mihara1)2), Noriaki Hattori1), Megumi Hatakenaka1), Teiji Kawano1) and Hajime Yagura1)

1)Neurorehabilitation Research Institute, Morinomiya Hospital
2)Department of Neurology, Osaka University Medical School

Recent studies of functional neuroimaging and clinical neurophysiology have implied that functional recovery after stroke is associated with use-dependent plasticity of the damaged brain. However the property of the reorganized neural network depends on site and size of the lesion, which makes it difficult to assess what the adaptive plasticity is. From clinical point of view there is accumulating randomized controlled trials for the benefit of taskoriented rehabilitative intervention including constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics, and body-weight supported treadmill training. However dose-matched control intervention is usually as effective as a specific intervention. This raises a question regarding the specificity of a task-oriented intervention. Second question is whether such intervention goes beyond the biological destiny of human. Specifically there is no known strategy enhancing recovery of severely impaired hand. To augment functional gain, several methods of neuro-modulation may bring break-through on the assumption that they induce greater adaptive plasticity. Such neuro-modulative methods include neuropharmacological modulation, brain stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation and direct current stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation, neurofeedback using real-time fMRI and real-time fNIRS, and brain-machine interface. A preliminary randomized controlled trial regarding real-time feedback of premotor activities revealed promising results for recovery of paretic hand in patients with stroke.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (315K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 52: 1174|1177, 2012)
key words: stroke, neurorehabilitation, functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, motor learning

(Received: 24-May-12)