Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

The 50th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Neurology

Molecular genetic approach to spinocerebellar ataxias

Kinya Ishikawa, Taro Ishiguro, Makoto Takahashi, Nozomu Sato, Takeshi Amino, Yusuke Niimi and Hidehiro Mizusawa

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a group of degenerative ataxias with autosomal dominant inheritance. The most common form of mutation that causes SCA is the expansion of trinucleotide (CAG) repeat encoding polyglutamine. These "polyglutamine disorders" are, SCA1, SCA2, Machado-Joseph disease, SCA6, SCA7, SCA17 and DRPLA. Another dynamic mutation, yet a non-coding one, has been identified as the cause of SCA8, SCA10 and SCA12. This mutation includes, trinucleotide (CAG/CTG) expansion causing SCA8 and SCA12, and pentanuclotide (ATTCT) expansion leading SCA10. In addition to these dynamic mutations, static mutations, such as missense mutations and deletions, have been identified to cause SCA5, SCA11, SCA13, SCA14, SCA15 and SCA27.
Since 1992, authors have been involved in identifying the mutation (s) of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with rather pure cerebellar syndrome (ADCAIII). About a half of our cohort with ADCAIII were SCA6, caused by a small CAG repeat expansion in the α1A-voltage-dependent calcium channel gene. Recent study in patients' brains suggested that a small polyglutamine expansion leads a portion of this channel protein to aggregate in the Purkinje cell. Another type of ADCAIII is the chromosome 16q22.1-linked ADCA. By a comprehensive positional cloning strategy, we have found a genetic change that segregate with the disease. Identifying the mutation of 16q-ADCA is imperative for understanding molecular basis of this disease.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (455K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 49: 907|909, 2009)
key words: spinocerebellar degeneration, spinocerebellar ataxia, positional cloning, gene mutation

(Received: 22-May-09)